Piece by piece

As Pasadena celebrates the centennial of the 19th Amendment, activists say the right to vote was but one of many big victories needed for full gender equality

By Justin Chapman, Pasadena Weekly, 8/22/2019

Monday, Aug. 26, Women’s Equality Day, marks the 99th anniversary of ratification of the 19th Amendment to the US Constitution, guaranteeing women the right to vote. 

In commemoration, two floats in the 2020 Rose Parade will celebrate the 100th anniversary and the history of the women’s suffrage movement: one produced by the city of South Pasadena, the other by a diverse group of Pasadena women and the National Women’s History Alliance, under the auspices of a nonprofit called Pasadena Celebrates 2020.

The theme of Pasadena Celebrates 2020’s float is “Years of Hope, Years of Courage,” with the tagline, “Upon Their Shoulders, We Won the Vote. Upon Our Shoulders, We Protect the Vote. We Celebrate and Build for the Future.” The theme of South Pasadena’s float is “Victory at Last.”

The theme of the 2020 Rose Parade is “The Power of Hope.” This year’s Tournament of Roses president, Laura Farber, is the third woman — and first Latina — to preside over the parade in its 131-year history.

Between 11 a.m. and 10 p.m. on Sunday and Monday, California Pizza Kitchen restaurants in Pasadena, Santa Anita, Glendale, Burbank and Studio City will donate 20 percent of their proceeds toward building the Pasadena Celebrates 2020 float.

“There are still people who have trouble with the vote,” observed Martha Wheelock, who serves on Pasadena Celebrates 2020’s executive committee. “It’s keeping it both historical and how we feel we’re guardians of it. It’s not history; it’s still going on.”

'Unbossed and unbought'

The 100th anniversary of the 19th Amendment will be August 2020, but Ellen Snortland — long-time Pasadena Weekly columnist, self-defense advocate, sexual assault survivor, author, playwright and filmmaker — wants to educate people ahead of time. That’s why, in addition to helping the Pasadena Celebrates 2020 float committee, she has curated an exhibit on the women’s suffrage movement in the north lobby of the Pasadena Central Library.

Martha Wheelock and Ellen Snortland

“1920 is the year we actually won the vote,” said Snortland. “People say, ‘Oh, they were given the vote.’ No, we weren’t given shit — yeah, we were given a lot of shit. It’s a big deal that women won the vote without having to kill anybody. Gandhi got his ideas of nonviolent social change from watching the women in the UK and the United States, and hardly anybody knows that. He saw them picketing and chaining themselves to the White House fence. They were just not putting up with the hypocrisy. President [Woodrow] Wilson was fighting a war to promote democracy in Europe and half of his population couldn’t vote.”

Her exhibit runs through Aug. 31 and features her personal collection, decades in the making, of dresses, books, photos, pamphlets, political cartoons, campaign buttons and other artifacts highlighting the major players and moments of the movement in the United States, as well as the UK suffragettes. Wheelock also donated some of her memorabilia with a focus on California. The exhibit will return to the library in December and March.

The exhibit pays tribute to several women and men who played key roles in the fight for women’s suffrage. For instance, one shelf displays a pair of ruby slippers, a nod to L. Frank Baum, who wrote the original “Wizard of Oz” series.

“I have been studying this long enough that I get connections that a lot of people aren’t aware of,” said Snortland. “For instance, this woman, Matilda Joslyn Gage, was one of the most radical of the radicals, and that’s why you’ve never heard of her. She said it’s the patriarchal religions that have the feet on our necks, and that was just not going to fly in her time. However, she influenced her son-in-law, L. Frank Baum, to be not only someone who was interested in having a female protagonist, Dorothy, but to be a suffragist himself who promoted women’s rights and equal rights big time. Perhaps, if it hadn’t been for Matilda Joslyn Gage, we would not have had Dorothy.”

The exhibit also pays homage to famous first political campaigns, including Victoria Woodhull, Shirley Chisholm and Hillary Clinton.

“Woodhull was completely notorious and a brilliant woman,” said Snortland. “She ran on a ticket with Frederick Douglass,” an escaped slave who became a social reformer, abolitionist, orator, statesman and writer who penned numerous autobiographies. “Of course, they didn’t have a snowball’s chance in hell of winning that, but she ran and she was important. And we have Shirley Chisholm, who was a serious contender,” Snortland said of Chisolm, the first black woman elected to Congress, who served New York from 1969 to 1983. Her signature campaign slogan was “Unbossed and unbought.” Last year, the Washington Post wrote that her “feminist mantra is still relevant 50 years later.”

'Where are the women?'

Snortland’s exhibit features the women who are considered the mothers of the US suffrage movement, such as Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton, as well as lesser known but equally important figures, including women of color such as Sojourner Truth.

“The African-American women were thrown under the bus by not only white women but by Frederick Douglass, who was caught between a rock and a hard place,” said Snortland. “He had to make a devil’s decision, which was, ‘Do I get behind the vote for black men, or do I wait for universal suffrage?’ And he decided he needed to get behind black men, but that threw all these African-American women under the wagon, so to speak. And the white women did that, too, because the best way to control people is to have them fight each other and then the dominant class doesn’t have to deal with it.”

An important part of the exhibit features Native American women, who promulgated and practiced democracy and provided early lessons in gender equality.

“Ben Franklin and the early suffragists got their ideas about gender equality from the Haudenosaunee, commonly known as the Iroquois Confederation,” said Snortland. “They are the longest standing practicing democracy on the planet. Ben Franklin invited two leaders from the Haudenosaunee to visit Philadelphia during the Constitutional Convention. They walked in and said, ‘Where are the women? You can’t create a society without women.’ They thought they were nuts.”

The exhibit also features Pasadena resident, suffragist and author Charlotte Perkins Gilman. She wrote the semi-autobiographical short story “The Yellow Wallpaper” after a severe bout of postpartum psychosis, as well as the novel Herland, considered to be the first science fiction book, about a society composed entirely of women who reproduce through parthenogenesis (asexual reproduction). She also wrote a book way ahead of its time called Women and Economics: A Study of the Economic Relation Between Men and Women as a Factor in Social Evolution, which inspired women to start their own businesses.

The exhibit also focuses on the substantial anti-suffrage movement, which Snortland categorized as the foremothers of the ultraconservative Eagle Forum, which was founded by anti-feminist firebrand Phyllis Schlafly in 1972.

“They were determined to keep traditional womanhood and rigid gender roles in place,” said Snortland. “They basically believed the extent of a woman’s life should be to get married and have kids. They were promulgating the idea that if women voted, their ovaries would dry up, and a lot of the women who already had eight children said, ‘Great idea! Sounds good to me.’

Piecemeal struggles and hatchetations

Snortland’s exhibit is one of many exhibits, conferences, parades and other events across the country telling different aspects of the movement’s story, including three major exhibits at the Library of Congress, the National Portrait Gallery and the National Archive Museum in the nation’s capital, all curated by women.

The exhibits, including Snortland’s, bring forward lesser known elements of the story, such as the fact that the 1913 Women’s Suffrage Parade was the first peaceful march on Washington. And that the temperance movement was led by women such as Carrie Nation who went into saloons and used a hatchet to break bottles and chop up bars in acts she called her “hatchetations.”

It also shows how ratification of the 19th Amendment came down to one vote in the Tennessee Legislature, the last state to seal the deal. Assembly member Harry T. Burn, who wore a red rose to represent his opposition to women’s suffrage, cast the deciding vote in favor of the 19th Amendment when, at the last minute of roll call, someone brought him an envelope. He opened it, read it, put it in his pocket and changed to a yellow rose, signifying his newfound support of women’s suffrage.

“It was a letter from his mother saying, ‘Please, let your mother vote,’” said Snortland. “By one vote, we were ratified. Unbelievable. But that’s the existential question, isn’t it: how do you win the vote if you can’t vote for yourself?”

Dr. Robyn Muncy, a historian at the University of Maryland and one of the curators of the National Archives exhibit, told The New York Times that the ratification of the 19th Amendment was not the final “triumphant culmination” of the movement, “but one landmark in a struggle for equal rights for all citizens that isn’t over yet.”

“It’s important to remember how piecemeal a struggle it was,” Muncy said. “Seeing change as coming in one fell swoop undermines us as citizens and gives us a false idea about the way change happens.”

Mourning in America

Pasadenans call for gun control and immigration reform at a Villa Parke vigil for the victims of recent mass shootings

By Justin Chapman, Pasadena Weekly, 8/15/2019

Americans across the country are demanding action on gun violence and white supremacist extremism, which has manifested in a decidedly anti-immigrant flare.

On Wednesday, Aug. 14, activists marched from All Saints Church to the Richard H. Chambers US Court of Appeals in West Pasadena to protest the Trump administration’s arguments to cancel the Temporary Protected Status for immigrants from six countries.

On Aug. 7, about 300 people mourned the victims of the recent mass shootings in Gilroy, El Paso, Texas, and Dayton, Ohio, during a candlelit vigil at Villa Parke in Northwest Pasadena.

And during an interfaith panel discussion on white supremacy on Aug. 5 at All Saints, Congressman Adam Schiff (D-Pasadena) said Gilroy, El Paso and Dayton weren’t just the latest mass shootings; they were acts of domestic terrorism. Increasingly, national security experts are concerned about the rise of this far-right extremism in the United States.

“There is no escaping the clear and present danger of white supremacist violence in the United States and the terrible urgency to confront it,” said Schiff. “Simply put, it’s domestic terrorism. Acts of unspeakable violence motivated by a hateful ideology which justifies them as a means to an end. It shouldn’t be hard or controversial to say that. After all, if the shooter in El Paso was Muslim, is there any question how the president would describe him?”

Schiff said the FBI is currently conducting 850 active domestic terrorism investigations.

“People are now feeling free to express themselves in the most hateful of ways because they hear the president doing it and don’t see an outcry,” Schiff added. Some Democratic presidential candidates have called Trump himself a racist and a white supremacist.

The 21-year-old El Paso shooter, who drove 10 hours on Aug. 3 to kill 22 people and injure 24 in a Walmart, told law enforcement officials that he was specifically targeting Mexicans. He also used language in his manifesto that echoed President Trump’s anti-immigrant rhetoric, such as calling immigrants “invaders.”

It was the largest anti-Latino shooting in modern American history. The Latino community across the country feels under attack. Other countries are now issuing travel warnings to their citizens about the United States. Mexico vowed to take legal action against the United States for failing to protect the eight Mexican nationals who were killed in El Paso.

‘Enough is Enough’

“The events of this weekend show how vulnerable we are in Pasadena,” Jennipha-Lauren Nielsen, who organized the Villa Parke vigil, wrote on the event webpage. “We must remain strong in our commitment against white supremacy. That is El Paso’s strength. Nothing will change that. Today, we must reaffirm our commitment to that strength. And we must redouble our commitment to defeat the vile worldview of white supremacy.”

The Villa Parke vigil was sponsored by the Refugee and Immigrant Center for Education and Legal Services (RAICES) and the National Day Laborer Organizing Network (NDLON). Friends In Deed Executive Director Rabbi Joshua Levine Grater and NDLON Executive Director Pablo Alvarado delivered remarks, in addition to Nielsen. Pasadena Mayor Terry Tornek and his wife Maria were also in attendance, as were District 5 City Council member Victor Gordo and Police Chief John Perez.

Peter Dreier, an urban and environmental policy professor at Occidental College, wrote on Facebook that people attended the vigil to “protest white supremacy, mistreatment of immigrants, rampant gun violence and Donald Trump. The crowd was wonderfully diverse by race, ethnicity, age and faith traditions. We sang together in Spanish and English, including Leonard Cohen’s inspiring ‘Hallelujah.’ The next steps will include trips to the border, a march to the federal courthouse in Pasadena and vigils at the local detention center. Si se puede!”

The same day as the Pasadena vigil, Aug. 7, US Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) agents raided several food processing plants across Mississippi and arrested 680 undocumented workers — but not the managers who hired them — just four days after the El Paso shooter targeted Latinos. It was the largest workplace raid in at least a decade. ICE did not inform Trump about the raid ahead of time, afraid that he would speak publicly about it like he did before other planned raids.

This reporter visited the El Paso/Juárez border in March when the arrival of Central American migrants surged to the point where existing detention and housing facilities became overwhelmed. Under the border bridge between Juárez and El Paso, US Customs and Border Protection (CBP) was holding a large number of migrants, including families and children. Despite the hot days and cold nights, they were being forced to sleep in the open air with silver mylar “space” blankets, exposed to the elements. There was also a pair of CBP agents at the middle of the bridge checking documents and turning away asylum seekers before they could reach the physical border where they are allowed to claim asylum.

“The hate-filled speeches that incite violence, the criminalizing of entire families and communities and the scandalous collusion of elected officials with hate groups — enough is enough,” wrote Nielsen.

‘Do Something!’

It has become a familiar refrain: after a mass shooting, calls for action on gun control get largely ignored by elected officials. Research from online public opinion firm Civiqs shows that public support for gun control increases after a high-profile shooting, then peters out after a few weeks. But support is steadily increasing, and the hard-line anti-gun control coalition is starting to show some cracks.

At a rally in Ohio, a crowd mourning the Dayton victims drowned out the remarks of Republican Gov. Mike DeWine with chants of “Do something! Do something!”

Even before the recent shootings, polls showed public support for gun control measures such as universal background checks at about 90 percent. Last week, Trump seemed open to at least exploring background checks and red flag laws, which would authorize law enforcement to take guns away from those a court has deemed a threat to others. Whether he follows through is another matter, as he has changed his position on gun control many times over the past few years. He and other Republicans were quick to blame the violence on video games and mental illness, while other countries also have those but don’t experience routine, horrific shootings as nearly as much as the United States.

Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell (R-Kentucky), in a rare reversal of his usual stance, said background checks would be “front and center” when the Senate reconvenes in September. He did not, however, call the Senate back into session this month to tackle the issue, which many consider a national emergency. The Democratic-led House of Representatives passed a gun control measure in February, but it has been held up in the Senate by McConnell ever since.

Meanwhile, the National Rifle Association (NRA) is in a tailspin. Its president, Oliver North, was pushed out earlier this year by its long-time CEO Wayne LaPierre, who is being criticized by its board of directors and members for lavish spending and mismanaging finances. Infighting has also recently led to the shuttering of the organization’s controversial NRATV station and the severing of ties with its long-time PR firm Ackerman McQueen and its top lobbyist, Christopher Cox, who was seen as LaPierre’s successor.

The Washington Post reported last week that Trump has been asking aides whether the NRA is as powerful as it used to be and whether it can push back as hard if the White House were to pursue stronger gun control measures. Time will tell if the NRA still has the clout to hold off the public’s growing demands for action against the epidemic of gun violence.

Next Steps

Villa Parke will be the location of another upcoming event, a “Support Immigrant Rights” rally from 4 to 6 p.m. on Thursday, Aug. 22. The sponsors of this rally include St. Philip’s Church, Lake Avenue Church, Adelante Youth Center, NDLON, Pasadena Jewish Temple and Center’s Social Justice Committee and Day One.

The themes of the rally are “Bridges Not Walls” and “Sanctuary Not Detention,” with the goal of showing “solidarity with immigrants and refugees, including about 50 families now in Pasadena.” Immigration attorneys will be on site and people can either sign up to support immigrant rights or contribute to a legal defense fund for immigrant families.

A Hero's Welcome

World Cup-winning U.S. women’s soccer team kicks off victory tour with a 3-0 win over Ireland at the Rose Bowl

By Justin Chapman, Pasadena Weekly, 8/8/2019

Fresh off their second World Cup win in a row (and fourth total), the U.S. women’s national soccer team defeated Ireland 3-0 at the Rose Bowl in Pasadena on Saturday. The game was the U.S. team’s first since the World Cup Final against the Netherlands on July 7 in Lyon, France, in which the United States beat the Netherlands 2-0.

A fireworks display inside the Rose Bowl welcomed the two teams. Forward Tobin Heath scored the first goal in the 16th minute by heading the ball into the net and midfielder Lindsay Horan scored the second goal in the 31st minute. Forward Carli Lloyd scored another header for the third goal in the 41st minute and received the Budweiser Woman of the Match award. Ireland was able to hold off the U.S. team in the second half.

Several times during the game, the crowd of 37,040 people broke into chants of “Equal pay! Equal pay!” in support of the U.S. women’s team’s “equal pay for equal work” lawsuit against the U.S. Soccer Federation, the body that governs the sport in the United States.

The match against Ireland kicked off a five-game victory tour for the U.S. team and was the fifth U.S. women’s game at the Rose Bowl, the first in 17 years and the third since the U.S. team won the groundbreaking 1999 Women’s World Cup. And it was the first time each of the current U.S. players actually played in the Rose Bowl. The remaining four games in the victory tour will see the U.S. team face off against Portugal on Aug. 29 in Philadelphia, PA, and Sept. 3 in St. Paul, MN, and against South Korea on Oct. 3 in Charlotte, NC, and Oct. 6 in Chicago, IL.

‘Full circle’

In the 1999 World Cup Final at the Rose Bowl, the U.S. women’s team tied with China, leading to nail-biting penalty kicks in front of a crowd of 90,185 people, the largest ever for a women’s sporting event. U.S. player Brandi Chastain scored the final goal to put the U.S. team over the top at 5-4, inspiring legions of young girls and boys playing soccer across the country, including the current U.S. team’s players, who were between four and 14 years old at the time. It was a watershed moment for women’s sports.

Playing in the same stadium as the 1999 team 20 years later “is extraordinary, a full circle moment,” midfielder Megan Rapinoe, 34, from Redding, CA, told the Pasadena Weekly before the U.S. team’s Friday practice at the Rose Bowl.

“We’re all in that age that we were inspired by that win,” she added. “To be able to come back here and celebrate a huge win that we had and connect the dots all the way through the program is very special.”

After scoring the winning penalty kick in 1999, Chastain slid onto her knees in triumph and ripped off her shirt, revealing her sports bra. It was a moment seen--and dissected--around the world, and the ensuing controversy highlighted the double standard facing female athletes.

On July 10, the 20th anniversary of that 1999 World Cup Final, the Rose Bowl Legacy Foundation installed a bronze statue of Chastain’s iconic moment, depicting her on her knees clutching her derobed jersey with a look of pure exultation on her face. The statue is located in front of the stadium’s main entrance, Gate A, near where countless youth soccer games take place, ensuring that the moment will continue to inspire new generations of soccer players. Chastain herself attended the statue’s unveiling ceremony.

“[This statue] is not just for one person, it’s for every little soccer player out there,” Chastain said at the unveiling. “I hope every player who puts on cleats has a moment like that.”

Players Lorrie Fair and Saskia Webber from the 1999 team were also at the unveiling and read off the names of their other teammates.

“The impact of the [1999] victory, to sports and to women, cannot be overstated,” Pasadena City Council member Margaret McAustin, who represents District 2, said at the unveiling.

Marla Messinger, who served as president and COO of the 1999 FIFA Women’s World Cup Organizing Committee, said the women of the 1999 team “redefined what it meant to be a female athlete. They were educated, articulate, beautiful and as unafraid to be as tough and competitive on the field as they were collegial and engaging off the field.”

‘Just what this country needs right now’

On Friday, one day before their game against Ireland, the U.S. women’s team held a practice session on the Rose Bowl’s Spieker Field and spoke about the legacy of the trailblazing 1999 team.

Jill Ellis, the U.S. team’s head coach, said Chastain’s iconic moment was the inspiration to play soccer for some of the current team’s players. Ellis announced on July 30 that she is retiring after five years and 103 wins. She will continue to coach the team through their victory tour, which ends Oct. 6, and she has been nominated for FIFA’s 2019 Best Women’s Coach award, which she also won in 2015. She is the first coach to win two Women’s World Cup titles, including last month in France and in 2015 in Canada.

“That moment [in 1999] was the catalyst of a movement in terms of suddenly taking this game to a level where it reaches a bigger audience, it touches more people, it attracts more investment,” said Ellis, 52. “It pushed us forward and upward. It was a touchstone to what came next. It’s fitting that we’re here. The Rose Bowl is pretty special. This is a great place to kick [our victory tour] off. Part of what this celebration is about is saying thank you to our fans.”

Forward Alex Morgan, 30, who grew up in Diamond Bar, CA, and played soccer at UC Berkeley, said her team was continuing the legacy started by the 1999 team.

“The ‘99ers had such a domino and lasting effect on both myself but also the future of women’s soccer in the United States and globally,” she said. “This team, the ‘19ers, is doing the same and continuing to uphold that legacy. but it definitely started with the ‘99ers right here [at the Rose Bowl].”

Morgan and Rapinoe did not play Saturday because of injuries.

“[The 1999] team laid the foundation for the mentality of all the teams after it,” said midfielder Rose Lavelle, 24. “That mentality and the legacy they left is what has carried this program through so much success. Being able to step on the same field as them when they won the World Cup is so cool and surreal.”

LA Mayor Eric Garcetti attended Friday’s practice and gave the championship team some words of encouragement.

“You’re just what this country needs right now,” he told them.

The U.S. women’s team didn’t just win the World Cup; they set several records along the way, including scoring the most goals in tournament history with 26 and the most goals in a single Women’s World Cup match and the largest margin of victory when they beat Thailand 13-0. The U.S. team has also won 12 consecutive World Cup matches, the longest winning streak in the tournament’s history.

On the same day as the unveiling of the Chastain statue, July 10, this year’s World Cup-winning U.S. women’s team received a ticker-tape parade in Manhattan to celebrate the team’s fourth World Cup win. Democratic presidential candidate and New York City Mayor Bill de Blasio presented them with keys to the city.

Rapinoe, Morgan, Lavelle and midfielder Julie Ertz, 27, were all nominated for the 2019 Best FIFA Women’s Player award, along with eight other players from different countries. The winner will be announced at the Best FIFA Football Awards show on September 23 in Milan, Italy. Rapinoe also received the Golden Ball (World Cup MVP), Golden Boot (World Cup top scorer) and FIFA Player of the Match awards. Morgan won the Silver Boot as the second-leading scorer and Lavelle won the Bronze Ball as the third-best player in the tournament.

‘Doing what’s right’ on equal pay

Despite these accomplishments, the U.S. women’s national soccer team continues to make less money than the U.S. men’s national soccer team, which has not performed nearly as well as the women’s team. The men’s team didn’t even qualify for the 2018 World Cup, for instance, and they lost to Mexico in the Copa America tournament’s final game on the same day the women’s team won their World Cup Final, July 7.

In March, all 28 players on the U.S. women’s team filed a lawsuit against U.S. Soccer over allegations that the men’s team receives more in bonuses and game day pay, and that female players make as little as 38 percent of what male players make overall.

“We’re fighting here on the soccer level, but [the equal pay fight has] an even bigger scope, in the boardroom, in hospitals, in the teachers’ [lounge], it’s everywhere,” said Ellis. “At some point, it comes down to doing what’s right.”

On July 29, U.S. Soccer President Carlos Cordeiro released an open letter claiming the organization actually pays the women’s team more than the men even though the men’s team brings in more revenue than the women’s team. Yesterday, U.S. Soccer hired two Washington lobbying firms to push back against legislation requiring them to pay the women’s team as much as the men’s team. For their part, the men’s team has written public letters of support for the women’s team’s efforts.

“[Cordeiro’s letter] missed the whole point,” Rapinoe said. “It’s more about the potential earnings of each team, that’s what’s really unequal. We’ve won 85 percent of our games, so it’s more about the total compensation package. I’m not sure what the point was in him trying to say that, because it’s obviously not the point of what we’re fighting for. I’m looking forward to mediation.”

Rapinoe is also relishing her platform to serve as an antagonist to President Trump, who backtracked on his invitation for the championship women’s team to visit the White House after they won the World Cup.

“People are frustrated and fed up with all of the negativity and the cruelty coming from the [Trump] administration, not only just vulgar language but racist and sexist behavior,” Rapinoe said at the Rose Bowl.

She added that her message of unity for the country will “take really hard conversations and it’s going to be really awkward and difficult and it’s going to take a lot of work from every single person to do that, but my message is if you’re willing to come and have that hard conversation, that’s where the magic is and that’s where the real progress can be made. Absent that, we’re just going to keep fighting. I don’t think what’s happening right now is really working for anyone besides Donald Trump and a small percentage of people in the upper echelons of the 1 percent.”

U.S. hat trick

Looking ahead, the U.S. women’s team is preparing for the 2020 Summer Olympics in Tokyo, Japan. And FIFA announced on July 31 that the number of participating countries in the 2023 Women’s World Cup will expand from 24 to 32, reflecting the growing popularity but also competitiveness of women’s soccer. FIFA will announce which country will host that tournament in May 2020.

The United States, which is hosting the men’s World Cup along with Mexico and Canada in 2026 and the Olympics in LA in 2028, is hoping to host the Women’s World Cup in 2027.