LA's Sheriff is Globally-Minded for a Global City

DECEMBER 19, 2017
By: Justin Chapman, Pacific Council

The LA County Sheriff’s Department is yet another example of Los Angeles’ emergence as a global city, LA County Sheriff Jim McDonnell told Pacific Council members. The discussion was moderated by Ms. Elise Buik, president and CEO of United Way of Greater Los Angeles.

"Los Angeles is truly the most international city in the world," said McDonnell. "There are 32 countries whose population is the highest in Los Angeles than anywhere other than the capital of their country. When something happens anywhere else in the world, there’s a direct connection with Los Angeles."

He added that the LA County Sheriff’s Department is the largest in the world with approximately 18,000 employees (including 9,500 sworn deputies) serving 10 million residents throughout the county, with the responsibility to secure 18,000 inmates on any given day. Its International Liaison Unit utilizes "police diplomacy" to connect with police agencies around the world, exchange resources, training, and experience between nations, offer support to over 110 embassies and consulates and notify them of the arrests and deaths of foreign nationals within LA County, follow protocols of consular notification and diplomatic immunity, and provide multilingual interpreter services.

"We as law enforcement officers have to have a certain sensitivity and awareness in LA because there are so many different cultures and languages and traditions," he said, adding that the most critical element in community policing is trust.

"So many people who live in Los Angeles came from countries where the police are brutal or corrupt or worse in some cases. We have to overcome their perception of police to be able to show that we’re different and we’re here to help you."

Jim McDonnell

"Trust is our currency," he said. "If we don’t have that, we don’t have anything else. So many people who live in Los Angeles came from countries where the police are brutal or corrupt or worse in some cases. We have to overcome what they bring to the table with regards to that perception of police to be able to show that we’re different and we’re here to help you. We want them to know that we’re approachable and that we’re here for their children. That’s a heavy lift in some cases because of that element of distrust, including distrust in our own history in terms of policing in America. We have to own that and have a game plan for moving forward."

The sheriff’s department also polices the jails, courts, community colleges, hospitals, parks, search and rescue operations, and more.

"When you stretch our personnel across all of those specialties, I look at the sheriff’s department as one of the country’s best public safety investments and one of the best deals for the taxpayers because we get so much out of our people for the money we spend," said McDonnell.

"Law enforcement agencies from around the world come to L.A. to learn from us. We learn from them, too. This makes us a leader on the world stage."

Jim McDonnell

McDonnell said criminal and terrorist organizations have become sophisticated and internationally connected.

"There is so much going on with regards to the counterterrorism front that you’ll never hear about, by design," he said. "The world has become so much smaller because of the internet and the ability to travel. There are transnational gangs and criminal organizations that we see connecting with the existing gang network here in Los Angeles on a daily basis. We’re dealing with all of this as if it were a multinational conglomerate. It is that sophisticated now on the criminal side and it’s only going to become more so as we move forward. So we have to be plugged in internationally with our partners around the world, not only in the criminal justice or policing context, but in the intelligence community as well."

He added that when a terror attack happens elsewhere, the sheriff’s department works with their national and international partners to ensure that there is no local connection or threat in L.A.

"Law enforcement agencies from around the world come to LA to learn from us," he said. "We learn from them, too. This makes us a leader on the world stage."

"When it comes to cybersecurity, we’re nowhere near where we want to be at the local, state, or national level."

Jim McDonnell

Some of the high-profile issues with international relevance that the sheriff’s department works on include sex and labor trafficking, cybersecurity, and immigration.

"In sex trafficking cases, we rescue the victim—usually young girls—and get them services and back in school, then we go after the pimps, traffickers, and demand side with everything we’ve got," he said. "When it comes to cybersecurity, we’re nowhere near where we want to be at the local, state, or national level. And with regards to immigration, we have to work with ICE on some things: the ports, sex trafficking, and other issues. We try to strike the balance between public safety and public trust when it comes to immigration."


Justin Chapman is the Communications Associate at the Pacific Council on International Policy.

Check out photos from this event on our Flickr page.

The views and opinions expressed here are those of the speaker and do not necessarily reflect the official policy or position of the Pacific Council.

Insights from Water Conference 2017

DECEMBER 7, 2017
By: Justin Chapman, Pacific Council

Our inaugural Water Conference included panel discussions, a keynote interview with Water Deeply Managing Editor Tara LohanTED-style talks, and roundtable sessions. This special program explored global water scarcity challenges and solutions, presented in partnership with O’Melveny & Myers LLP as part of the Pacific Council's Global Water Scarcity Project.

The conference’s breakout sessions included discussions on water security and conflict, water challenges in urban settings, California’s water footprint, and lessons learned from the commodities market.

The following are just a few of the insights from our inaugural Water Conference.


Global Water Hotspots & U.S. Military Priorities

Moderated by Ms. Heather Welles, associate at O’Melveny & Myers LLP, this panel featured Dr. Marcus DuBois King, associate professor and director of the Elliott School of International Affairs at George Washington University; Ms. Betsy Otto, director of the World Resource Institute’s Global Water Program; and Mr. Todd Diamond, director of the Middle East region at Chemonics International.

The failure to sufficiently invest in water security now could mean that the United States and other international actors will incur great costs in the future to respond to potential humanitarian crises, public health emergencies, and conflicts between or within states. Water scarcity also has the potential to inflame regional conflict; particularly during the last two decades, water has incited instability in the Middle East through adverse climate conditions, water mismanagement, and the use of water supply as a weapon itself. Panelists discuss how water problems (shortages, poor water quality) are already impacting U.S. national security interests overseas.

"Where the stressors are most significant right now in terms of hotspots in the world and U.S. national security interests, the Middle East might go without saying," said Diamond. "But water service delivery issues there in particular are inflaming some of the issues going on in the Middle East."

"Poor management and governance are some of the drivers of this water stress, but it is demand that is the greatest driver of water related stress."

Betsy Otto

Otto pointed out that water issues are increasingly noticed by national defense and security agencies around the world.

"They see a strong connection between water and security issues," she said. "In terms of which regions are the most challenging right now, I would say sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. If you look at the water picture in India, it’s quite frightening in terms of the rapid drawdown of groundwater resources, how over-taxed their surface water resources are, and the fact that they sit with a number of countries on some very important transboundary rivers with not ideal sharing arrangements. Poor management and governance are some of the drivers of this water stress, but it is demand that is the greatest driver of water related stress. The good news is that we have an opportunity to actually change the way we’re managing our water demand, and that is the crux of the challenge."

King said water stress has led to the ascendancy of violent extremist organizations around the world who use water as a weapon in regional conflicts.

"In the war in Yemen, all sides have been targeting water infrastructure," he said. "The Saudis destroyed a reservoir in 2016 that supplied 30,000 people in Sana’a. There are estimates that Sana’a could be the world’s first capital city to totally run out of water, and this could happen as early as 2030. We’ve seen water weaponization in Iraq, especially with subnational actors. One example is when ISIL seized the Mosul Dam, which is upstream on the Tigris River from Baghdad. Breaching that dam could have caused a wave of water that would have inundated the Green Zone. We are also seeing actors withhold water services to subjugate populations."

Ahead of the Water Conference, King wrote an article for the Pacific Council’s Newsroom on water stress, instability, and violent extremism. Click here to read the article. Diamond wrote about water solutions to the displacement crisis in the Middle East, found here.

Urban Water Resilience Across the Globe

Moderated by Ms. Rachel Cardone, global water scarcity project fellow at the Pacific Council, this panel featured Ms. Liz Crosson, deputy chief sustainability officer in the Los Angeles Mayor’s Office; Mr. Chris Dunston, senior program officer at the Hilton Foundation’s International Programs; and Ms. Laura Friedman, California Assemblymember (D-43).

It is anticipated that in the next 30 years, urban water demand will increase by 50 percent. Challenges such as population growth, economic expansion, and climate change further threaten water supplies in cities around the world, which are re-thinking investments in infrastructure and water management practices.

Crosson discussed the Sustainable City pLAn that Los Angeles Mayor Eric Garcetti created upon entering office in order to make the city environmentally healthy, economically prosperous, and equitable.

"It is so important that we have elected officials who can bridge that gap and both understand water issues and speak to the public about this very important resource."

Laura Friedman

"When Mayor Garcetti came into office, he made it a priority to put forth a plan for the entire city," said Crosson. "That included getting buy-in from every department across the city, and now we’re seeing passion and innovation" in terms of water conservation and environmental sustainability practices across the board.

Friedman explained how important it is to educate the public about water issues in a way that relates to citizens' every day lives. When she was on the Glendale City Council, the head of that city’s water utility used graphs and charts to explain to residents why the city needed to raise water rates.

"The public had absolutely no idea what he had just said and why they had to spend more money on water, especially after people had been trying really hard to conserve water themselves," said Friedman. "It is so important that we have elected officials who can bridge that gap and both understand water issues and speak to the public about this very important resource. It is difficult to explain to people that their conservation efforts will be rewarded with higher water rates."

Dunston argued that when it comes to managing urban water systems in an effective and equitable way, smart policies, regulations, and the ability to enforce those regulations are critical.

"We take for granted the hard work that mayors’ offices and counties do in order to regulate things," he said. "Without that it’s chaos. It’s very difficult. And who ends up paying for it is usually the poorest of the poor."

Water Security Risk & California Trade

Moderated by Mr. Alf W. Brandt, senior counsel to California Assembly Speaker Anthony Rendon, this panel featured Mr. Sargeant Green, water management specialist at Cal State Fresno’s California Water Institute; Ms. Ashley Boren, executive director of Sustainable Conservation and member of the California State Board of Food and Agriculture; Dr. Julian Fulton, assistant professor in the Department of Environmental Studies at Cal State Sacramento; and Ms. Heather Cooley, director of the Pacific Institute’s Water Program.

A recent report from the Pacific Institute, looking at California’s water footprint, shows that California’s agricultural footprint is dominated by non-renewable groundwater. Dependence was apparent throughout the recent drought. Now with the drought behind us, panelists discussed how leading agricultural sectors are addressing their water risk and what is needed to become more water secure.

"What California has experienced in the last five years—the most precipitation in recorded history this past year after the worst drought in recorded history—is really a preview of the future," said Boren. "It’s the new normal. We’re going to have increasingly volatile weather. That means we’re going to have to manage water differently than we used to, including relying more heavily on groundwater storage."

Fulton pointed out that California’s water use is growing faster than its population, which highlights the region’s own water scarcity challenges.

"Virtual water is the amount of water embedded in the products we demand and consume in California, such as food, electronics, clothing, and more," he explained. "California currently requires 100 cubic kilometers or more of water to sustain our economy. Our water footprint—the amount of virtual water that we require to sustain ourselves—has grown by about 2-3 percent per year, a growth rate that is greater than population growth. We’re also using more of our internal water resources to create and export products. When we talk about global water problems, they’re not just problems elsewhere; they are also our water problems."

Green said that while California is the gold standard in terms of water management strategies, the demand for services and production associated with water has been increasing.

"Everybody wants California to succeed because we are the place where these changes are going to occur in technology, institutions, and funding," he said. "In California, we do import more water, in the way of products and services, and spend more money than we are selling off-site. What we do well here is produce food, and that has a global impact and response because there’s a global need. But we have to do it as efficiently as possible."

"When we talk about global water problems, they’re not just problems elsewhere; they are also our water problems."

Julian Fulton

Cooley discussed the new technologies that are being developed and deployed in California related to water management.

"These technologies are very important: the drip irrigation system, the technologies that are helping us understand how much water crops actually need and when they need it, and new ways of using recycled municipal wastewater for agriculture," she said. "There are parts of California, particularly the Central Valley and the Central Coast, where we could be using that wastewater more effectively. I also think we have been living beyond our means. There is going to have to be some reduction in acreage. We need to be smart about that and help those communities that are going to be adversely impacted."

Virtual Water Trade? Lessons from the Commodities Market

Moderated by Mr. Barton H. "Buzz" Thompson, Jr., the Robert E. Paradise professor of natural resources law at Stanford Law School and of counsel at O’Melveny & Myers LLC, this panel featured Dr. Vanessa Casado-Perez, associate professor of law and research associate professor of agricultural economics at Texas A&M University; Mr. Christopher Peacock, founder and CEO of the Water Innovation Project; and Mr. Matthew Payne, principal at WestWater Research LLC.

Over the next quarter century, clean drinkable water will become more scarce as the global human population grows and supply decreases. Although investing in water is already commonplace, water is not openly traded in the marketplace like other commodities such as oil.

"Today there are existing water markets in California and the western United States, but they are non-transparent and highly fragmented."

Christopher Peacock

Casado-Perez argued that physical water will never be traded in the same way as physical oil.

"Water markets will have a more important role than they have today in allocating water, but they will never reach the level of oil markets," she said. "There are limits on trading water as a commodity because beyond being important for any economic activity, it’s also very important for human life."

Payne pointed out that water is more expensive to transport than oil, and that even new technologies like desalination are not yet having a significant effect on water markets because they are also expensive.

"There hasn’t been a lot of desalination in the United States yet; it’s a relatively new phenomenon," he said. "What I’ve observed is that desalination contracts typically trade at a price premium to other sources because it’s so expensive to desalinate that water considering the energy, facilities, and chemicals required. Whoever is producing that desalinated water needs to recoup their costs and in some cases make a profit depending on whether they’re public or private. So those desal agreements are priced higher."

Peacock argued for more transparency in water markets that already exist.

"Today there are existing water markets in California and the western United States," he said. "People are actively buying, selling, and trading water. But they are non-transparent and highly fragmented. As we raise the level of transparency, one of the ways we can help disadvantaged communities deal with this issue is allowing them to participate in the market. Formal water markets help raise the level of transparency about what’s actually going on, and then people can make informed decisions about their water."


Justin Chapman is the Communications Associate at the Pacific Council on International Policy.

Check out more photos of this conference on our Flickr page.

Learn more about the Pacific Council’s Global Water Scarcity Project, which seeks to connect the dots between California’s water scarcity challenges and international issues of trade, energy, politics, and security.

Closing in on the truth

Calling Trump the ‘worst president in modern history,’ Congressman Adam Schiff says evidence of collusion between Russia and the Trump campaign is mounting

By Justin Chapman, Pasadena Weekly, 11/30/2017

The investigations into whether President Donald Trump and associates in his campaign and administration colluded with Russia during the 2016 presidential election is picking up speed.

Special Counsel Robert S. Mueller III has convened a grand jury, indicted former Trump campaign manager Paul Manafort and his aide Rick Gates, obtained a guilty plea from Trump foreign policy advisor George Papadopoulos and begun interviewing Trump’s top aides in the White House.

Meanwhile, Republican leaders in Congress have said they are aiming to wrap up the congressional investigations in the House and Senate by February. Congressman Adam Schiff (D-Burbank), who represents a portion of Pasadena and is the ranking member of the House Intelligence Committee, thinks that timeframe is much too soon, as there are still more witnesses to interview and evidence to review.

Trump and the White House frequently criticize Schiff for doing many media interviews about the investigation. On July 24, Trump wrote on Twitter, “Sleazy Adam Schiff, the totally biased congressman looking into ‘Russia,’ spends all of his time on television pushing the Dem loss excuse!”

Schiff responded by tweeting, “With respect Mr. President, the problem is how often you watch TV, and that your comments and actions are beneath the dignity of the office.”

On Nov. 1, during a House Intelligence Committee hearing, Schiff laid out the evidence for Trump-Russia collusion so far, saying, “What is clear is this: the Kremlin repeatedly told the campaign it had dirt on Clinton and offered to help it, and at least one top Trump official, the president’s own son, accepted.”

Schiff recently spoke with the Pasadena Weekly about the Russia investigation.

Pasadena Weekly: Where does the House Intelligence Committee investigation stand? Where are you in the process and what’s to come?

Congressman Adam Schiff: We continue to make progress and have multiple witnesses coming in each week. We continue to learn new and important information about what the Russians did and how they did it, and in particular about contacts between the Russians and Trump campaign that bear further investigation. I’m limited in what I can discuss. Donald Trump Jr. revealed some of his direct messages on Twitter to WikiLeaks, and this is significant. Of course, he did it only because they were about to be published, which is similar to when he released his emails about the meeting at Trump Tower. But what is significant about them is if you look at the timetable, on June 9, 2016, Don Jr., Paul Manafort and Jared Kushner take a meeting with intermediaries from Russia who have been promising dirt as part of what they describe as a Russian government effort to help the Trump campaign, and there are two messages that the Trump campaign sends back through these intermediaries. The first is they would love to have the help. And the second is, they were very disappointed in the help they got at that meeting. Now, it’s only days later that Julian Assange discloses for the first time that he’s received thousands of stolen Hillary Clinton emails, which we know were stolen by the Russians. So WikiLeaks apparently obtains these emails shortly after the meeting in Trump Tower. It’s sometime later that Donald Jr. is in private communication with WikiLeaks, this cut out the Russians are using to publish this stolen information. We can see the significance of this much better when we look at this broader context.

Is there evidence of collusion between Russia and President Trump or his associates in the administration or campaign?

There’s certainly evidence of collusion. Now, whether the evidence is proof beyond a reasonable doubt is a decision that Bob Mueller will have to make. There are certain pieces of the puzzle that we now see come into view. We see in April 2016 George Papadopoulos, one of the other foreign policy advisers for the Trump campaign, meeting with Russians who disclosed to him that they possessed these stolen emails, and the Trump campaign learns even before the Clinton campaign that the Russians are in possession of her emails. The campaign expresses an interest and willingness to work with the Russians. We see this time and time again now. There are still missing pieces of the puzzle that we are looking for. We see a growing web of connections between the campaign and the Russians.

How would the potential second special counsel affect the congressional investigations?

The most significant thing it would do would be to destroy a large part of the independence of the Justice Department. It would really be a complete capitulation to political pressure from the White House. So the most significant impact is not on the investigations but on the integrity of the Justice Department. I served there for six years, and I have to hope that that’s not a path that the attorney general goes down. This was a political call by the president and his surrogates in Congress in urging the Justice Department to investigate his vanquished political opponent. This is what they do in dictatorships and emerging democracies. It’s what we counsel other countries not to do, that is, after you win an election you don’t abuse the levers of power to prosecute your vanquished opponents. That’s the much bigger significance, frankly, than any impact on our investigation. In Congress, they’ve already announced they’re going to do an investigation of this seven-year-old uranium transaction. But you can expect political ploys like that from the majority that brought you the Benghazi Committee. This is a Benghazi Redux.

Is President Trump under investigation?

That’s not something I can comment on one way or the other.

You recently said Trump is the worst modern-day president and that he’s undermining these investigations. How is this going to end?

I say that he’s the worst president in modern history for a variety of reasons. Certainly, his handling of the Russian interference in our election is one proof of that, but his denigration of the press, calling the press the ‘enemy of the people,’ his discussion of pulling the licenses of a network because he doesn’t like their coverage of him, his belittling of federal judges who rule against him and undermining their legitimacy, his erosion of the independence of the Justice Department, his executive order to preclude people from coming into the country on the basis of their faith; these and many other reasons so clearly make him the worst president in modern history. In terms of where our investigations or Bob Mueller’s investigation will end up, I don’t know, but I can say that it’s our obligation in Congress to do a thorough job and make a complete report to the public and if at all possible to do so on a bipartisan basis. That’s certainly the goal that I’m working towards.

If the Democrats were in the majority, and you were chairman of the House Intelligence Committee, how would you have handled the investigation differently?

There are a lot of ways in which our investigation is departing from best investigative practices, in a sense that the majority is scheduling certain witnesses before we’re ready to interview them and before we have the documents to question them with, and other important foundational witnesses have yet to be scheduled. There are lines of inquiry that we need to pursue and there are subpoenas that should be issued that haven’t gone out. There are issues that we continue to urge the majority to take seriously and to pursue. We hope that they will. Certainly, if we were in the majority we’d be using best practices, and it’s my hope that we can persuade the majority to do so.

President Trump and the White House frequently criticize you for doing so much press. Why do you think it is important to get the message out to the American people about what these investigations are doing?

The only lever that we have in the minority to get the majority to do what they should do in terms of the investigation is by exposing the conduct when they err and also to make the case for why this is important to the country. It’s not a case that the president particularly wants made, and so I’m sure they would like to silence anyone who’s talking about the Russia investigation or explaining why it’s integral to our national security. If the Russians can hold something over the president of the United States, that is deeply damaging to our national interests and the country has a right and a need to know. So I’m going to continue to make the case. I would only say to the president who doesn’t like how much I do TV, that he would be a lot better off watching a lot less TV, and we would all be a lot better off if he found other ways to occupy his time.

What can Congress do to prevent Russia or another foreign government from meddling in future elections using social media to influence campaigns?

First of all, we need to make sure the social media companies disclose any political advertising with the same kind of disclaimers we see in advertising in other media, and I think that’s going to happen. Some of the companies are already moving in that direction. More than that, we need to be sure that they’re devoting the resources to ferreting out ‘interference,’ foreign efforts to manipulate public opinion in the United States, or divide us against each other. We now have a tremendous volume of content the Russians were pushing, but they’ll be more sophisticated about hiding their hand next time. And even this time they successfully hid it until after the election. The tech companies are certainly going to have to step up their efforts. We’re going to need the intelligence community to work more closely with them and let them know when we’ve identified foreign bad actors that are abusing their platforms that they may not recognize, or foreign state actors rather than what they purport to be: individual Californians and Texans and people from all over the country. And we’re all going to have to be a great deal more skeptical about what we see pop up on our social media in terms of its veracity. We’re going to have to be much more skeptical consumers than we have been and we’re going to have to place a greater reliance on journalistic standards and insisting upon them, which is why the president’s denigration of the mainstream media is so singularly destructive to the country.

Leading the Foreign Affairs Conversation in NYC & LA

NOVEMBER 21, 2017
By: Justin Chapman, Pacific Council

Global cities like New York and Los Angeles are increasingly shaping the international policy conversation, New York City’s Commissioner for International Affairs Penny Abeywardena told Pacific Council members during a special roundtable discussion. The discussion was moderated by Ms. Karen Richardson, former Deputy Assistant Secretary in the State Department’s Bureau of Public Affairs.

Since her appointment in 2014, Abeywardena, a Los Angeles native, has guided the NYC Mayor’s Office for International Affairs in launching a series of initiatives focused on showcasing the local leadership and inclusive values of New York City toward achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), as well as connecting New Yorkers, and youth in particular, to the resources of the United Nations Headquarters.

"Before Mayor Bill de Blasio reached out to me to run the international affairs office, the office focused on the city’s role as a host to the diplomatic community and its operational responsibilities such as diplomatic incidents, security issues, the parking program, and helping the diplomatic and consular corps navigate this city," said Abeywardena, adding that New York City is home to the world’s largest diplomatic corps with the UN headquarters and its affiliates, 193 permanent missions, 114 consulates, and over 70 trade commissions.

"New York City and Los Angeles are beacons of sanity to the international community."

Penny  Abeywardena

"My goal was to be an entrepreneur in government," she said. "The mayor and I wanted to create a global platform to promote that which is working in New York City. We’ve launched or expanded universal pre-K and tackled affordable housing, homelessness, climate action, and other important issues. But we also knew it was important for New Yorkers to find value in being a host city to this incredible diplomatic corps."

Abeywardena pointed out that the UN gets a "bad rap" from New Yorkers, partly because the city has not strategically marketed the benefits of the relationship.

"I commissioned the first economic impact analysis of hosting the UN in New York City in over 25 years," she said. "The numbers were extraordinary. It’s a boon of almost $3.69 billion. Instead of thinking about all the traffic in September during the UN General Assembly, think about all the people that are visiting our bodegas and dry cleaners and restaurants. There is a huge economic benefit in hosting the UN in our city."

Abeywardena is focused on connecting both adults and young New Yorkers with the UN. Her office engages them through two programs: Global Vision | Urban Action, in which they translate the 17 SDGs into concrete actions at the local level, and the NYC Junior Ambassadors program, in which seventh grade educators incorporate the SDGs into their curriculum, conduct field trips to the UN, and receive a classroom visit from a senior diplomat.

"There is a real desire from our global counterparts to hear New York City’s values as American values, and to see how we are leading on everything from climate action and immigration to education and housing."

Penny Abeywardena

Abeywardena said it is important that global cities such as New York and Los Angeles communicate, which is why she reached out to L.A.’s new Deputy Mayor for International Affairs Nina Hachigian, who is also a Pacific Council Director.

"New York City and Los Angeles are beacons of sanity to the international community," said Abeywardena. "There is a real desire from our global counterparts to hear New York City’s values as American values, and to see how we are leading on everything from climate action to how we support our immigrants to how we are tackling issues related to education and housing."

Two of the biggest issues where cities have displayed their leadership is immigration and climate action, Abeywardena said. On immigration, she pointed out that the consular corps are important bridges into the city’s immigrant communities.

"We work with them to make sure city services are getting out to them in a program called Connecting Local to Global," she said. "And we have a program called IDNYC which ensures that all New Yorkers, regardless of their immigration status, are able to have an ID card, without which you can’t access city services or even pick up your kids from school."

"Organizations like the UN are increasingly looking to cities and the private sector as federal governments are shifting away from their appropriate responsibility."

Penny Abeywardena

The Puerto Rican community, in particular, is significant in New York, and the city's response to Hurricane Maria provides another example of how cities are handling the responsibilities of what are typically seen as the federal government's responsibilties. Two months after the hurricane devastated the island, about half of the island still does not have electricity. New York City has set up a website to accept donations for their Puerto Rico relief efforts.

"New York City has a commitment to supporting our Puerto Rican community during this time when we don’t really feel like the federal government is showing up," she said. "We’re working closely with the Department of Education so any students coming in from Puerto Rico are immediately integrated into a classroom."

According to Abeywardena, climate action is one of the main ways that cities such as New York and Los Angeles are displaying their leadership on the global stage.

"New York City along with 300 other cities came together and signed their own executive orders around committing to the Paris Accord," she said. "A few weeks ago, New York City released our policy plan as to how we are going to achieve that, and that has been really important because organizations like the UN are increasingly looking to cities and the private sector as federal governments are shifting away from their appropriate responsibility. One thing that has come out of this last year that most of the international community and also Americans didn’t appreciate is the power of cities and states to lead and shape policy."

"With all the recent elections in the western world, there are a lot of like-minded mayors and governors out there who allow for different opportunities for engagement."

Penny Abeywardena

Abeywardena said that one of the unintended consequences of Donald Trump’s election is that it is now more appealing for some foreign entities to engage with the United States through its cities.

"There’s a real sense of solidarity at the city level," she said. "With all the recent elections in the western world, there are a lot of like-minded mayors and governors out there who allow for different opportunities for engagement."


Justin Chapman is the Communications Associate at the Pacific Council on International Policy.

The views and opinions expressed here are those of the speaker and do not necessarily reflect the official policy or position of the Pacific Council.

New vision

‘One Arroyo Day’ Saturday seeks input from the community on its vision for the Arroyo Seco

By Justin Chapman, Pasadena Weekly, 11/16/2017

After Pasadena Mayor Terry Tornek called for a new vision for the Arroyo Seco during his State of the City address last January, the Arroyo Advisory Group (AAG) that he established will be presenting its initial report to the Pasadena City Council this January.

“During 2017, the city will consider the entire Arroyo Seco in a comprehensive way, not just as a site for a huge variety of user-driven functions, but as the living, beautiful, natural heart of our city,” Tornek said in his Jan. 18 speech.

In a recent interview, Tornek said his goal of getting people to refocus on the Arroyo as a total, integrated ecosystem was the product of the AAG.

“If we could get people to think about the arroyo in a comprehensive and holistic way, I thought we could get people excited about it and have them recognize the tremendous value that it provides to the city, and maybe write a check, since the city doesn’t have the capacity to fund everything,” said Tornek. “As I traveled around the country and looked at best practices in urban parks, I realized that the ones that are most successful are ones that have a high degree of citizen, community participation, both in terms of governance and funding.”


Earlier this year, Tornek appointed former Pasadena Mayor Bill Bogaard and current Rose Bowl Operating Co. board member Doug Kranwinkle to co-chair the AAG, a citizen committee of 20 Pasadena residents. They have been tasked with soliciting input from the community as well as rebranding the Arroyo Seco as “One Arroyo,” rather than the three distinct parts that most people see it as now: Hahamongna Watershed Park, Central Arroyo and Lower Arroyo.

“The purpose of the Arroyo Advisory Group is to spotlight the Arroyo Seco as the natural resource that it is, to develop a stronger public interest and support for the Arroyo Seco and to seek funding that will allow the city to maintain and improve the Arroyo Seco in a way that hasn’t occurred in recent years,” said Bogaard, who added that he is delighted to be able to serve the city again.

The AAG is currently in the second of three phases. The first phase was internal organization and an initial announcement of the effort. The AAG divided itself into four subcommittees: Vision, Funding, Outreach and Projects and Priorities. The Vision Committee drafted a vision statement for the One Arroyo project: “Pasadena’s great outdoor space, the historic Arroyo Seco, will become One Arroyo. From the headwaters in the north to the tributaries in the south, its natural habitats, resources and historic sites will be preserved, enhanced and connected by an extraordinary end-to-end trail system, all anchored by a central hub.”

The second phase involves heavy emphasis on public outreach, including presenting their project at community meetings and neighborhood associations for the past several months. They have also posted an online survey available at, which ends Nov. 30. More than 1,300 people have already filled out the survey.


A major element of the project is a single, unifying “One Arroyo Trail” that will connect and circumnavigate the entire Arroyo Seco, which currently does not exist, as well as restoring and connecting the approximately 20 miles of trails that exist on the banks of the Arroyo. The AAG’s report to the council in January will lay out the priorities identified so far, including the trails project.

“We’re moving very cautiously and carefully because all of it depends upon the response from the outreach program,” said Tom Seifert, who chairs the AAG’s Projects and Priorities Committee. “We’re very concerned about how people feel about the arroyo. We’re sensitive to what the community is going to be interested in. Behind the scenes, we’ve been developing our potential projects list, and the one that we’ve identified so far that everyone has enthusiastically embraced is the trails project.”

The AAG and the city are also hosting One Arroyo Day from 10 a.m. to 2 p.m. Saturday at Brookside Park, 360 N. Arroyo Blvd. Many of the organizations who are involved in the arroyo will have exhibitor booths where residents can learn more about them. There will be a trail clean-up, a nature scavenger hunt for kids, a native wildlife reptile station, lawn games and crafts, raffles and a hot dog cookout by the Pasadena Firefighters Association Local 809. Officials will be on hand to answer questions. And most importantly, the survey will be available.

Tornek held three “Walk the Arroyo with the Mayor” events in September and October, which he said taught him a lot about what the community wants for the Arroyo.

“The walks stimulated a lot of discussion and confirmed my notion that people don’t have a comprehensive understanding of the thousand acres that comprise the Arroyo and the very different kind of environments, opportunities and challenges that it offers,” said Tornek. “I learned a lot, too. It wasn’t a lecture tour. It was a conversational tour. I enjoyed the hell out of it.”


Bogaard said the response from the community to the project has so far been mixed. On the one hand, everyone loves the arroyo and wants to see it improved. On the other, there was some initial suspicion that the purpose of the AAG was to create new, commercial activities in the arroyo, which many people oppose.

Mic Hansen, who serves as the vice chair of the Projects and Priorities Committee, said that many people would prefer for the arroyo to remain natural.

“It’s very important that the community tell the AAG what their perspective regarding the arroyo is,” she said. “How do they want the arroyo to look and feel now? How do they want it to look and feel in five years, 10 years, 15 years? This is not a project for and by the AAG principals. It is a project for and by the community. It’s a group designed to elicit and then make sense of what the community wants.”

It is a complicated endeavor for many reasons, not least of which is funding and governance issues. There is $80 million worth of approved but unfunded projects already on the books. And the number of stakeholders in the arroyo is staggering. JPL, the Rose Bowl, Tom Sawyer Camp, the Pasadena Roving Archers, the casting pond, the Audubon Society, the Rose Bowl Aquatic Center, Kidspace Children’s Museum, the Rose Bowl Riders, Brookside Golf Course, the bird sanctuary, the Arroyo Foothills Conservancy, Arroyo Seco Foundation, the Army Corps of Engineers, the Rose Bowl Flea Market, UCLA football, Arroyo Seco Weekend, the Frisbee golf course, AYSO and the horse stables are just a partial list.

“The issues that we’re coming to grips with in the arroyo are not strictly issues of, ‘Do we build a trail or not,’ and, ‘What should the signage look like?’” said Tornek. “It’s not just physical alterations or improvements; it’s also the issue of governance. We have three different city departments doing it, which is not an efficient or effective way to do it.”

Bogaard and Hansen pointed out that the AAG is primarily looking to the four existing master plans for the arroyo that were developed and adopted by City Council in 2004. The funding sources they will soon begin looking at include foundation grants, donations and public funds. The state Legislature has approved a ballot measure for November 2018 that will provide $4 billion worth of support for parks, open space and waterways statewide.

“If it’s approved by the voters in the fall of 2018, we will be prepared to seek funding under that program through the work that’s being done right now,” said Bogaard.


After the report to city council in January, the AAG’s work will not be completed. At that point, the committee will turn its attention to the issues of funding and governance.

“We have not yet fully identified funding sources, which is really one of our more important missions,” said Kranwinkle. “Until we really know what we’re funding, it’s hard to go to John Q. Public and say, ‘Hey, we’d like a thousand dollars.’ We also have some charge to look at better coordination or management of activities in the arroyo. I’m expecting that there will be an additional phase after the report to the City Council.”

Kranwinkle pointed out that the arroyo has fallen into a state of disrepair due to strained city budgets.

“If you walk down there, it’s a mess,” he said. “It’s a bit of a fire hazard right now. I think that’s what brought our group about.”

Seifert agreed that the deferred maintenance is one of the major issues facing the arroyo. The Lower Arroyo in particular, he said, is in dire need of brush clearance for fire hazard considerations.

“The arroyo is such a treasure,” said Seifert. “I’m so happy to be part of this undertaking because it’s so sorely needed, to really concentrate major attention on what a wonderful natural resource we have.”

Tornek said that the city and the community are in it for the long haul.

“This project won’t be completed in my lifetime,” he said. “If this works right, if we set some things in motion and make some organizational changes in how we manage all this stuff, the actual improvements should be going on over generations. So this is intended as a legacy project, not as a quick hit. If we can score some early wins and demonstrate to people this is not just conversation and a random idea, but rather a sea change in terms of how we manage and think about this resource, I think we can have some real success both in the short term and in the much longer term.”

Learn more about the Arroyo Advisory Group and One Arroyo Day at

Ma Ying-jeou Calls for Stronger Cross-Strait Relations

NOVEMBER 15, 2017
By: Justin Chapman, Pacific Council

Relations between mainland China and Taiwan are deteriorating and must be restored, former Taiwanese President Ma Ying-jeou told Pacific Council members. The discussion was moderated by Ambassador Nina Hachigian, deputy mayor of international affairs for the city of Los Angeles.

Taiwan and mainland China have long had strained relations since the establishment of the People’s Republic of China in 1949. While President Trump has signaled clear support for maintaining U.S.-Taiwan relations, only 20 states officially recognize Taiwan as the Republic of China, and the United States is not one of them.

Ma said that the 1992 Consensus, in which both sides met to negotiate what the One China policy actually means, is the bedrock for relations between the two sides.

"On one hand, mainland China wants a relationship with Taiwan, but they also want to make sure that we accept the One China principle," said Ma. "Per the 1992 Consensus, both sides of the Taiwan Strait must adhere to the One China principle, but they can express their own interpretation of it."

"If the young people of the two sides could meet and make friends early in their life, I’m sure the chances of sustainable peace would be possible."

Ma Ying-jeou

Relations between Taiwan and mainland China have had their ups and downs. Ma pointed out that before he was elected president in 2008, the relationship was at a low point.

"Barely one month into my presidency, the two sides reached an agreement called the Three Communications: trade, travel, and mail," he said. "We also agreed that we will exchange tourists. This was a revolutionary change. At the time, there were only about 290,000 visitors from mainland China per year. By the time I left office, the number reached 4.2 million."

Ma also said that he sees cross-strait friendships growing among young people.

"In 2007, the number of mainland students studying in Taiwan was 823," he said. "By the time I left office, the number reached 42,000. This is very, very important because I always believe that if the young people of the two sides could meet and make friends early in their life, I’m sure the chances of sustainable peace would be possible."

Since Ma left office in May 2016, he said cross-strait relations have deteriorated.

"President Tsai Ing-wen so far has not accepted the 1992 Consensus," he said. "Her party generally supports Taiwan’s independence, so it makes it very difficult for her to accept the 1992 Consensus. But mainland China attaches so much importance to it. When we don’t have contact with mainland China, it could affect many aspects of our lives: trade, investment, and other things. I sincerely hope President Tsai will reconsider her position, because when I was president I accepted the 1992 Consensus but I didn’t do anything that would hurt our dignity or interests."

"My grand strategy is maintaining a peaceful relationship with China, a friendly relationship with Japan, and a close relationship with the United States. By doing that, we could maintain the balance."

Ma Ying-jeou

Exactly two years to the day before Ma’s discussion with the Pacific Council, he and Chinese President Xi Jinping became the first presidents of Taiwan and China to meet publicly, which was held in Singapore.

"We called the meeting between me and Xi Jinping ‘MaXi,’" said Ma. "We first established the ground rules for the meeting: neither side should refer to official titles. Instead of ‘People’s Republic of China’ and ‘Republic of China (Taiwan),’ we would just say ‘mainland’ and ‘Taiwan.’ And neither leader should be called ‘president’ or ‘chairman,’ just ‘mister.’ Mainland China said they wanted to pay for the expenses of the meeting because they have diplomatic relations with Singapore and we don’t. I said, ‘Okay.’ For beverages, they would bring 30-year-old Moutai and we would bring 25-year-old Gaoliang. After the banquet, we found that more Gaoliang was consumed than Moutai, so we won," Ma joked.

At the meeting, Ma and Xi reconfirmed that the 1992 Consensus is the common political ground of the two sides.

"We wanted to use this opportunity to further reduce hostilities between the two sides and to broaden and deepen the cross-strait contacts," said Ma. "We built a bridge of peace across the Taiwan Strait. My grand strategy is maintaining a peaceful relationship with China, a friendly relationship with Japan, and a close relationship with the United States. By doing that, we could maintain the balance."

"Unification should not only be peaceful, but also democratic."

Ma Ying-jeou

Ma pointed out that a majority of the Taiwanese people want to maintain the status quo in terms of relations with mainland China, with a small minority that wants independence and a small minority that wants unification.

"At the moment, the possibility of independence is diminishing," he said. "Domestically, we already have a self-ruled government. Internationally, there’s no chance of getting recognition from a lot of countries. Much like Catalonia, in the sense that no one will recognize us. So we better keep the status quo. On the issue of unification, we’d have to get the consent of the people. So unification should not only be peaceful, but also democratic. The mainland will not take any drastic action if Taiwan stayed as it is. So I think these issues can be worked out."

One area where Taiwan and mainland China agree, Ma said, is the South China Sea.

"Our position on the South China Sea, in many ways, is just the same as mainland China, in terms of territorial claim," he said. "The United States is concerned about land reclamation in the South China Sea, but according to the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea, countries can build artificial islands in Exclusive Economic Zones or the high seas without much difficulty. Even the Permanent Court of Arbitration said that what they did only violated environmental protection regulations, but the action alone isn’t necessarily in violation of the Convention on the Law of the Sea."


Justin Chapman is the Communications Associate at the Pacific Council on International Policy.

The views and opinions expressed here are those of the speaker and do not necessarily reflect the official policy or position of the Pacific Council.

The Constant Gardeners

Arlington Garden gets a new name and new management as the city attempts to purchase the property from Caltrans

By Justin Chapman, Pasadena Weekly, 11/9/2017

Arlington Garden in southwest Pasadena is undergoing branding and leadership changes.

Betty McKenney, who along with her late husband and former Pasadena City Council member Charles “Kicker” McKenney founded and cared for the garden since 2005, has retired. The garden’s board of directors is expanding and has hired a new executive director, Michelle Matthews, who started July 1. And it has been given a new name: The McKenney Family Arlington Garden in Pasadena.

The three-acre Mediterranean climate, water-wise garden is located in the infamous 710 Corridor and owned by the California Department of Transportation (Caltrans), which leases the property to the city. That lease expires in December 2018. The city, in turn, entrusts the property to Arlington Garden in Pasadena, a nonprofit corporation, which was established by the McKenneys.

Betty and Kicker were known as the “constant gardeners” and spent countless volunteer hours turning the ugly empty lot into the vibrant and colorful space it is today.

The city is currently attempting to purchase the property from Caltrans through the state agency’s ongoing surplus sales process, according to Assistant City Manager Julie Gutierrez, who sits on the garden’s board of directors as the city’s representative.

“We’ve had a couple meeting dates that Caltrans unfortunately canceled,” said Gutierrez. “Our goal is to chat with them about the property and several other properties that the city would like to look at acquiring. We are trying every other day to get a hold of Caltrans. We have quite a few issues with them.”

Back to its Roots

The property was originally the site of the historic Durand House, “one of the most elegant homes on South Orange Grove Boulevard,” according to Kirk Myers of the Pasadena Museum of History. In April 1902, John Durand purchased 10 acres known as Arlington Heights. The existing Victorian home was removed and “a team of skilled workmen spent more than three years executing architect F. L. Roehrig’s reconstruction of a chateau in France admired by Mr. Durand. With 17,000 square feet of floor space — 50 rooms in three stories — the home was said to be the largest in Southern California, if not the entire Southwest. A setback of more than 600 feet from South Orange Grove Boulevard allowed landscape architects to create a ‘tropical paradise’ in front of the mansion, with palms, cacti and century plants besides hundreds of varieties of flowering bushes, including roses and chrysanthemums. A hedge of Cherokee roses extended along Arlington Drive, toward the Busch home on the opposite side of Orange Grove. A small orange grove was set out in the rear of the home, along Pasadena Avenue.”

The year after John M. Durand III died in 1960, the furnishings and art objects were sold at public auction and the home was demolished. Three remaining acres became an empty lot with seven palm trees, two oaks, a jacaranda, a pepper tree and lots of weeds for nearly a half-century. After a rainstorm, high school kids would spin donuts with their cars and knock down trees, McKenney said. Just about every Fourth of July there would be a fire.

Caltrans acquired the property in the 1960s along with about 460 properties with the intention of razing the houses and building a freeway connecting the 710 and 210 freeways. Caltrans originally purchased the property for $330,000. After the city recently rezoned the property as open space, their appraisal set the price at $125,000.

“Our concern was that Caltrans would want the property for market housing, and we probably couldn’t afford that,” said Gutierrez. “As open space land, we could. Because it’s been rezoned, Caltrans shouldn’t be able to sell it as residential. We rezoned it in an open, public hearing process, so they did have an opportunity to speak up and they did not.”

Shortly after the McKenneys moved next door in 2002, District 6 City Councilmember Steve Madison reached out to neighbors to see what they would like the property to become. The McKenneys volunteered to come up with a good use for the site.

“It was pretty clear people wanted something passive,” said McKenney. “They didn’t want buildings or tennis courts or soccer fields or parking lots. I said if they want something passive it needs to be a garden.”

McKenney read Jan Smithen’s book “Sun-Drenched Gardens: The Mediterranean Style” and took notes at her lectures. They worked with Mayita Dinos, who designed the garden featuring drought-tolerant plants, and with Cal Poly students who drew up concept plans. In 2003, the city acquired a lease from Caltrans and approved the plans. The nonprofit Arlington Garden in Pasadena, along with the city’s Public Works and Water and Power departments and Pasadena Beautiful, then brought the garden to life.

The garden has become so successful, Matthews said, that “it looks like it’s been here for 30 years, instead of 10. Primarily it’s been a volunteer community labor of love.”

Conscious Expansion

Other changes have either been made or are in the works, as well. An electrical panel has been installed in anticipation of a new fountain in the orange grove. They are partnering with Theodore Payne to put in a native garden. The irrigation system is being improved. In the early years, the McKenneys hand-watered the young garden.

The garden now has security patrol at night, as well as security cameras and motion sensor lights. They are also looking at pricing a security fence.

“The garden is supposed to be closed when it’s dark, but people are here,” said McKenney. “We’ve also found things gone missing — plants, wheelbarrows, rain barrels — so people are coming with good intentions and not so good intentions. It’s becoming an issue.”

The garden has also seen a huge increase in the number of people who visit. McKenney and Matthews said the use of the garden is changing. Some of those uses are compatible, and some are not.

“We’ve had birthday parties for 3 year olds out here, and it’s really not that kind of place,” said McKenney. “Parents sometimes just turn their kids loose in the garden, not understanding that some of the plants are poisonous and some of the places they end up walking are really not paths. Sometimes we get ‘flash weddings.’ These great big limos pull up and let 20 people out and their guests take up all the parking on Arlington, there’s no parking on Pasadena Avenue, and it’s not very safe to park on Orange Grove. We’ve had prom goers come by here and have their prom pictures taken, a use we never envisioned. People are finding lots of ways to enjoy the garden.”

Amateur photography is allowed and free, but professional photographers are asked to pay a nominal fee and obtain a permit in order to shoot weddings, groups, portraits and lighting setups in the garden. Private parties are by permission only.

“We’re looking into what makes sense to charge and the numbers of people we can handle,” said Matthews. “We want to be conscious of our impact on the community.”

The garden’s management also wants to increase the amount of the events at the garden, as long as they are compatible with the neighborhood. From 10 a.m. to 4 p.m. on Saturday, the garden is hosting Art on Palm, an arts and crafts fair showcasing 50 artists in jewelry, clothing, ceramics, photography, wood-working and glass. Last month, the garden hosted an art auction as a test run event, and the American Institute of Architects held a birdhouse competition. The garden was recently featured on the international Mediterranean Garden Society tour. The Audubon Society will be conducting a bird count this year, the first since 2008.

More events are tentatively planned for next year, such as a classical music performance and an Earth Day event. They have also applied to be on the Theodore Payne Native Plant Garden tour.

“We hope to engage the public and have arts and cultural activities, as well as be an outdoor classroom and resource for schools and universities,” said Matthews. “But we want to be sensitive to the fact that this is primarily a residential area. We want to make sure that we’re being smart about the activities that we do.”

The garden costs about $100,000 a year to run. The city gives $21,100 per year in addition to a $5,000 grant from Public Works, and the rest comes from individual donations and from selling marmalade made from fruits of the orange grove.

“We hope our marmalade produced by E. Waldo Ward will become a new tradition of quality and help sustain our public Mediterranean climate garden,” reads the label on a jar of Arlington Garden Sweet Orange Marmalade.

Matthews hopes to increase the garden’s operating budget to at least $300,000 to be able to fund new projects and hire in-house staff to replace the large hole created by the constant gardeners’ absence.

“In the long term, we’re doing strategic planning, and I’m looking to partner with local organizations, schools and arborists so the garden can be a resource for the community,” said Matthews.

For more information on the McKenney Family Arlington Garden in Pasadena, visit